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Geometric mean serum leptin levels increased from menses to the late luteal phase (16.7-20.4 ng/mL; P < .01), with a mid-cycle peak (21.7 ng/mL) at the time of the LH surge (P < .01). A 10% higher leptin level across the menstrual cycle was associated with higher estradiol levels (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.5-3.0), luteal progesterone levels (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.5-3.7), ovulatory LH levels (1.2%; 95% CI, 0-2.3), testosterone levels (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9), and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (-0.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.4). Leptin at the time of the expected LH surge was moderately inversely associated with sporadic anovulation (per log increase in leptin; adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.28-1.22). testosterone.
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Exposure to sex hormones, but not prostaglandins altered mating behavior in zebrafish. The expression patterns of the studied genes indicate that there are large regional and gender-based differences in gene expression and that E2 treatment alter the gene expression pattern in all regions of the brain. testosterone.
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Human adult primary testicular cells were isolated, treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, and their gene expression levels profiled by microarray analysis. Highly regulated genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with LH and IGF-I on the gene expression level of androgens were assessed. T levels in the culture media were determined by a high-resolution ELISA. The expression of vitamin D receptor was confirmed at baseline and after 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation using immunocytochemistry. testosterone.
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This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. testosterone.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have intra-ovarian hyperandrogenism and granulosa cells (GCs) from PCOS patients have impaired insulin-dependent glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine whether excess androgen affects glucose metabolism and induces insulin resistance of GCs. We firstly explored the insulin metabolic signaling pathway and glucose metabolism in cultured GCs. The Akt phosphorylation and lactate production were increased after insulin treatment. Pre-treatment with PI3-K inhibitor attenuated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate accumulation. However, after treating GCs with different concentrations of testosterone for 5 days, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate production showed no significant change comparing with those of control cells. Finally, mRNA expression of insulin signaling mediators including INSR, IRS-1, IRS-2, and GLUT-4 in GCs was also not significantly altered after testosterone treatment. In conclusion, insulin activates PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes lactate production in ovarian GCs, but high androgen exerted no obvious influence on insulin signaling pathway and metabolic effect in GCs, suggesting that metabolic actions of insulin in ovarian GCs were unaffected by hyperandrogenism directly. testosterone.
For both males and females, there were no significant correlations between digit ratio and any androgen or estrogen concentrations considered individually, the testosterone to estradiol ratio, total androgen bioactivity measure or ratio of androgen to estrogen bioactivity (all p>.05). In males, but not females, total estrogen bioactivity was negatively correlated with left hand digit ratio (r=-.172, p=.02), but this relationship was no longer significant when adjusted for variables known to affect sex steroid concentrations in cord blood. testosterone.
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