How to install vmware tools on IPCop virtual machine

is a small linux distribution providing simple firewall / router / NAT solution. When running as a virtual machine, it is advisable to have VMware Tools installed (at least to allow graceful restart/shutdown of the OS and reporting guest IPs in vSphere). However IPCop is a very limited distribution, lacking many needed tools like insmod / rmmod, PAM, init.d system (IPCop uses sysinit). Plus it is using kernel version 3.4, which is not supported by vmtools. See for detailed insructions on how to install IPCop on ESX.

But there is still an option to install vmtools under IPCop, although without any kernel modules – but the graceful shutdown still works.

First initiate the vmtools installation from vSphere / vCenter via menu Guest –> Install/Upgrade VMware Tools (I am running under ESX 6.0 host in this example). Then mount the virtual CD and extract the package to a temp directory (we use /var/log filesystem because of how IPCop partitions its limited disk space). We remove all binary modules as none are for our kernel. IPCop itself needs less than 500 MB of disk space, so if you allocated only so much to the VM, take care you have at least 120 MB free in root filesystem (and about 250 MB in /var/log during the install process).

root@ipcop:~ # mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/ -o roroot@ipcop:~ # mkdir /var/log/VM-toolsroot@ipcop:~ # ll /mnt/total 71888-r-xr-xr-x 1 root root     2012 Feb 17  2016 manifest.txt-r-xr-xr-x 1 root root     1850 Feb 17  2016 run_upgrader.sh-r--r--r-- 1 root root 72162730 Feb 17  2016 VMwareTools-10.0.6-3560309.tar.gz-r-xr-xr-x 1 root root   687524 Feb 17  2016 vmware-tools-upgrader-32-r-xr-xr-x 1 root root   757944 Feb 17  2016 vmware-tools-upgrader-64root@ipcop:~ # cd /var/log/VM-toolsroot@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools # tar xzf /mnt/VMwareTools-10.0.6-3560309.tar.gzroot@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools # du -ks222276  .root@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools # cd vmware-tools-distrib/root@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # lltotal 524drwxr-xr-x  2 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 bindrwxr-xr-x  5 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 cafdrwxr-xr-x  2 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 docdrwxr-xr-x  5 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 etc-rw-r--r--  1 root root 282475 Feb 17  2016 FILES-rw-r--r--  1 root root   2538 Feb 17  2016 INSTALLdrwxr-xr-x  2 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 installerdrwxr-xr-x 14 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 libdrwxr-xr-x  3 root root   4096 Feb 17  2016 vgauth-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root    243 Feb 17  2016 vmware-install.pl-rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 205571 Feb 17  2016 vmware-install.real.plroot@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # rm -r lib/modules/binary/*root@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # du -ks110328  .

Then we need to create some dirs, which vmtools installation expects, but are not part of IPCop’s system.

root@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6; do mkdir -p /usr/local/rc.d/rc$i.d; doneroot@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # mkdir /etc/pam.d

Now we can start the installation script. It will complain about some tools not found, just reply with /bin/true for all of them. Also reply with our created directories when asked.

root@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # ./vmware-install.plSetup is unable to find the "rmmod" program on your machine. Please make sureit is installed. Do you want to specify the location of this program by hand?[yes]What is the location of the "rmmod" program on yourmachine? /bin/trueCreating a new VMware Tools installer database using the tar4 format.Installing VMware Tools.In which directory do you want to install the binary files?[/usr/bin] /usr/local/binWhat is the directory that contains the init directories (rc0.d/ torc6.d/)? /usr/local/rc.dWhat is the directory that contains the init scripts?[/usr/local/rc.d]In which directory do you want to install the daemon files?[/usr/local/sbin]In which directory do you want to install the library files?[/usr/local/lib/vmware-tools]The path "/usr/local/lib/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This programis going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what youwant? [yes]In which directory do you want to install the common agent library files?[/usr/local/lib]In which directory do you want to install the common agent transient files?[/var/lib]In which directory phentermine do you want to install the documentation files?[/usr/local/doc/vmware-tools]The path "/usr/local/doc/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This programis going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what youwant? [yes]The installation of VMware Tools 10.0.6 build-3560309 for Linux completedsuccessfully. You can decide to remove this software from your system at anytime by invoking the following command:"/usr/local/bin/vmware-uninstall-tools.pl".Before running VMware Tools for the first time, you need to configure it byinvoking the following command: "/usr/local/bin/vmware-config-tools.pl". Do youwant this program to invoke the command for you now? [yes]Setup is unable to find the "ldd" program on your machine.  Please make sure itis installed.  Do you want to specify the location of this program by hand?[yes]What is the location of the "ldd" program on your machine? /bin/trueSetup is unable to find the "insmod" program on your machine.  Please make sureit is installed.  Do you want to specify the location of this program by hand?[yes]What is the location of the "insmod" program on yourmachine? /bin/trueSetup is unable to find the "rmmod" program on your machine.  Please make sureit is installed.  Do you want to specify the location of this program by hand?[yes]What is the location of the "rmmod" program on yourmachine? /bin/trueSearching for GCC...The path "" is not valid path to the gcc binary.Would you like to change it? [yes] noSearching for a valid kernel header path...The path "" is not a valid path to the 3.4-3 kernel headers.Would you like to change it? [yes] noWARNING: This program cannot compile any modules for the following reason(s)...The communication service is used in addition to the standard communicationbetween the guest and the host.  The rest of the software provided by VMwareTools is designed to work independently of this feature.If you wish to have the VMCI feature, you can install the driver by runningvmware-config-tools.pl again after making sure that gcc, binutils, make and thekernel sources for your running kernel are installed on your machine. Thesepackages are available on your distribution's installation CD.[ Press Enter key to continue ]{the same for other kernel modules...}Warning: This script could not find mkinitrd or update-initramfs and cannotremake the initrd file!Generating the key and certificate files.Successfully generated the key and certificate files.   Checking acpi hot plug                                              doneStarting VMware Tools services in the virtual machine:   Switching to guest configuration:                                   done   Guest operating system daemon:                                      doneThe configuration of VMware Tools 10.0.6 build-3560309 for Linux for thisrunning kernel completed successfully.root@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # ps -ef|grep vmroot     29659     1  0 21:48 ?        00:00:00 /usr/local/sbin/vmtoolsdroot@ipcop:/var/log/VM-tools/vmware-tools-distrib # cdroot@ipcop:~ # rm -r /var/log/VM-toolsroot@ipcop:~ # du -ks /usr/local/110404  /usr/local/

The configuration will output message about each kernel module not being able to compile, just acknowledge it with Enter. At the end, you should have the vmtoolsd daemon running, but we still need to adjust the IPCop startup sysinit script to run vmtools start script at boot.

root@ipcop:~ # cat >>/etc/rc.d/rc.event.localEVENT=${1}VALUE=${2}if [ "$EVENT" = "system" -a "$VALUE" = "up" ]; then  /usr/bin/logger -t ipcop "Starting vmware tools"  rm -f /var/lock/subsys/vmware-tools  /usr/local/rc.d/vmware-tools startfi

File rc.event.local is run from rc.event, which is run at the end of rc.sysinit with parameters system and up. We need to remove the stale lock file first as we are not properly stopping the vmtools during shutdown. Now you can reboot IPCop to check if vmtools will be started during boot.

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Enabling NAT on VMware ESX with help of IPCop

VMware’s desktop products like Workstation include abilities to connect virtual machines (VMs) to outside network via NAT, but professional ESX hypervisor does not include any networking features (besides virtual L2 switches). So all such features must be done via a dedicated VM. One of the solutions is to use a small and efficient Linux distribution called IPCop. It requires only about 300 MB of disk space and maybe 256 MB of RAM (although I recommend to give it 512 MB of RAM and 512 MB of disk space).

What you need:

  1. ESX server (I use v6.0)
  2. Two public IPs (one for ESX itself, one for IPCop external “Red” network interface)
  3. IPCop installation CD (available on its homepage http://www.ipcop.org/download.php)

vcenter-ipcop2

In my example I have default ESX vSwitch 0, which is connected to the only physical network card of my server (so it has ESX public IP configured). I have named it “Red network” to be consistent of the IPCop naming. However individual VMs cannot be connected to this switch as each of them would require their own public IP. So instead we create an isolated virtual network (vSwitch 1) called “Green network”. As you can see this one does not contain any physical adapters, so the VMs are not able to communicate with outside world on their own. VMs will have private IPs and IPCop will provide them DHCP, DNS and internet access via NAT.

First we need to create a new VM, where we will install IPCop. Unfortunately it is not straightforward, because IPCop’s kernel does not include some of the usual drivers. The important parameters we need to set up are:

  • Guest operating system: Other 3.x or later Linux (32-bit)
  • 1 CPU socket, 1 CPU core
  • 512 MB RAM, 512 MB disk space (or more)
  • 2x Network: adapter type E1000, assign one to “Red network” and one to “Green network”
  • SCSI controller: BusLogic Parallel (this is most important as otherwise IPCop won’t detect any harddisk)

vcenter-ipcop2-vm

Now you can connect the installation CD iso image to the virtual CD/DVD drive and start the installation. The process is easy, just follow the IPCop’s manual. You can identify the Red/Green network during installation by looking at the MAC address in the VM’s properties (as seen on the image above). Configure your Red interface with the connection type you have from your network provider (DHCP in my case) and don’t forget that IPCop must use an IP address which is different from main IP assigned to ESX itself.

Just don’t forget to assign any new VMs just to the “Green network”, so it will get internet connection via IPCop. For more advanced users IPCop supports also DMZ network and OpeVPN access (so that your PC can be part of the virtual VM network and you can directly connect to them).

If you want to install VMware Tools in IPCop, I have a guide for that too: How to install vmware tools on IPCop virtual machine

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Geometric mean serum leptin levels increased from menses to the late luteal phase (16.7-20.4 ng/mL; P < .01), with a mid-cycle peak (21.7 ng/mL) at the time of the LH surge (P < .01). A 10% higher leptin level across the menstrual cycle was associated with higher estradiol levels (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.5-3.0), luteal progesterone levels (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.5-3.7), ovulatory LH levels (1.2%; 95% CI, 0-2.3), testosterone levels (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9), and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (-0.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.4). Leptin at the time of the expected LH surge was moderately inversely associated with sporadic anovulation (per log increase in leptin; adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.28-1.22). testosterone.

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Exposure to sex hormones, but not prostaglandins altered mating behavior in zebrafish. The expression patterns of the studied genes indicate that there are large regional and gender-based differences in gene expression and that E2 treatment alter the gene expression pattern in all regions of the brain. testosterone.

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Human adult primary testicular cells were isolated, treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, and their gene expression levels profiled by microarray analysis. Highly regulated genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with LH and IGF-I on the gene expression level of androgens were assessed. T levels in the culture media were determined by a high-resolution ELISA. The expression of vitamin D receptor was confirmed at baseline and after 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation using immunocytochemistry. testosterone.

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This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. testosterone.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have intra-ovarian hyperandrogenism and granulosa cells (GCs) from PCOS patients have impaired insulin-dependent glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine whether excess androgen affects glucose metabolism and induces insulin resistance of GCs. We firstly explored the insulin metabolic signaling pathway and glucose metabolism in cultured GCs. The Akt phosphorylation and lactate production were increased after insulin treatment. Pre-treatment with PI3-K inhibitor attenuated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate accumulation. However, after treating GCs with different concentrations of testosterone for 5 days, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate production showed no significant change comparing with those of control cells. Finally, mRNA expression of insulin signaling mediators including INSR, IRS-1, IRS-2, and GLUT-4 in GCs was also not significantly altered after testosterone treatment. In conclusion, insulin activates PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes lactate production in ovarian GCs, but high androgen exerted no obvious influence on insulin signaling pathway and metabolic effect in GCs, suggesting that metabolic actions of insulin in ovarian GCs were unaffected by hyperandrogenism directly. testosterone.

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For both males and females, there were no significant correlations between digit ratio and any androgen or estrogen concentrations considered individually, the testosterone to estradiol ratio, total androgen bioactivity measure or ratio of androgen to estrogen bioactivity (all p>.05). In males, but not females, total estrogen bioactivity was negatively correlated with left hand digit ratio (r=-.172, p=.02), but this relationship was no longer significant when adjusted for variables known to affect sex steroid concentrations in cord blood. testosterone.

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